Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), benign enlargement of the prostate (BEP), adenofibromyomatous hyperplasia and incorrectly referred to benign prostatic hypertrophy, is an increase in size of the prostate. When sufficiently large, the nodules compress the urethral canal to cause partial, or sometimes virtually complete, obstruction of the urethra, which interferes with the normal flow of urine. It leads to symptoms of urinary hesitancy, frequent urination, dysuria (painful urination), increased risk of urinary tract infections, and urinary retention. Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated in these patients because of increased organ volume and inflammation due to urinary tract infections, BPH does not lead to cancer or increase the risk of cancer.